. I wonder if there has been a situation were a rider was disqualified from a race for doping and his win credited to another rider , who was subsequently disqualified for doping, for the win to be credited to a third place rider. Perhaps some RBer will know if that has happened.
This is the reason why Armstrongs results at the TdF have been removed and the winning slot left blank, as there is just no way of knowing who had taken how much of what.
According to Paul Kimmage, in both his book and subsiquent writing, just about everyone in the peleton was taking something or another. However, Joe Parkin suggests that was far from the case in the late 80's and early 90's when EPO first appeared, not necessarily for honourable reasons, but as much because it was financially beyond the reach of the average domestique.
David Miller's book is good, and well worth the read, but you should also get A Dog in a Hat by Joe Parkin for a slightly different view of the same period.
As for organised use of drugs; from what I have read the Italians had that sorted years before Armstrong, he just took it to another level.
"Try not to punch any clowns"