I'm running 39/52 x 14/28 on Shimano Tricolor. You can run 39tooth on 135BCD Campag.
I ran a 12/28 cassette on Tricolor when I first built up my Raleigh, but no matter what I did with the B screw, the rear mech clashed slightly with the cassette on one of the larger gears. A change to a more modern Ultegra rear mech sorted that, and strictly speaking made the bike more 'correct'.
As for the general idea of fitting modern components to retro frames.... why not?
I find the whole idea of slavishly sticking to correct chainsets and components, down to the last nut, bolt and fixing utterly bizarre. If I were restoring a significant bike then that's a different matter, I have restored motorcycles and cars in the past, and spent hours hunting out the right switch or light or door panel etc. But in the case of a practical ride-able bicycle, what is the big deal with fitting modern components?
As for what components; whatever suits the style of your build or does the job you want. I like SRAM, I use it on most of my bikes (mtb or road), as it's available, relatively cheap and practical.
"Try not to punch any clowns"