I ran medium cage when I was running 13-29 because that's what Campag recommended.
Not tried a short one - but my understanding was that short cage only went up to 26T.
And long cage is for triples.
Completed: 94 Stumpjumper w. M733; ; 92 Dave Yates 731 ; 97 Parkpre Pro-Elite ; Pace RC200 F6 ; Pace RC300; 82 Gios Super Record ; 97-8 De Rosa Giro D´Italia; ; Banani SPX Track bike ; 89 Alan/Mavic Cross Bike ; 05 Focus Cross Team ; 90 Look MI-80 all-Mavic ; 12 Focus Izalco Team/custom build ; 11 Focus Thunder Custom build
Projects : , Brouwer all-Mavic
Stripped : Pace RC303
Gone : GT Karakoram
Stayed in the family: Kuota Kharma, 04 Stumpjumper FSR
Ceased to be : Dynatech MT3, killed by corroded seatstays.