If I'm not mistaken, the abstract say they are on stationary cycles.
This is the MTB section, we ride rough bumpy terrain, roads with pot holes, bridleways with tractor tracks, chalk stone laid path and roots and mud and sandy stuff....
Did you come across any real world research? I know they can datalog during rides nowadays?
That's a slightly different tack, though, isn't it?
The studies - and debate, largely, up to this point, have been about pedalling efficiency, as opposed to the most mechanical effectiveness (ie, it does go - or at least I hope it should - without saying, that using more than one part of the stroke to input force, is likely to increase mechanical effect, but what matters, is what's most efficient on the body over time).
That the rigeurs of MTB-ing might hold some advantages to the feet being attached to the pedals, for other reasons, not necessarily directly related to efficiency - but again, they could probably be boasted on either side of the clipless / clip choice.
Might hit sciencedirect see what crops up.
Go to it, I'm sure it's all good in the round.
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