Braze ons are the fittings on a steel frame that are brazed on, like cable stops, bottle cage bosses, rack mounts, mudguard eyes, shifter mounts, cantilever brake studs etc.
Dropouts are the forged, or stamped parts at the end of the forks, on the front, or at the end of the chain stay - seat stay intersection at the rear, basically the bit with the slots in where you fit the wheel axle:
Canti Hanger is the cable stop for cantilever brakes between the rear seat stays, or the bracket that fixes to the headset, or on the stem, or front forks:
Straddle angle refers to the angle that the cantilever brake's straddle wire attaches to the lever. Basically, the shallower the angle, closer to the tyre the straddle cable is, the better they work, but it's a bit more complicated than that and I find them a bit of a faff to set up well. More info:http://sheldonbrown.com/canti-trad.htmlhttp://sheldonbrown.com/cantilever-geometry.html
Some general "how to" sites that should help you with some basics and terminology:http://www.parktool.com/blog/repair-helphttp://www.madegood.org/
There is a sticker (bottom bar near the bottom of the seat tube) and that sticker says Tange, is this good?
It's a good start. Tange made a number of frame tubes, the most basic were thin walled but plain gauge steel tubes, the better, more expensive tubes were single, double or triple butted and were of varying strengths. Stronger tubes can be made thinner, so the completed frame is lighter, but of a similar strength and stiffness to a frame made of lower quality, thicker, heavier tubes. Basically, alloys of steel are all pretty much the same weight for a given quantity, so the only way to make a steel frame lighter, is to use less of it.
More info:http://www.brightspoke.com/qotd/2010-05 ... frame.htmlhttp://www.equusbicycle.com/bike/tange/tange.htm